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Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine & Surgery.
Bachelor of Veterinary Science.
A term to denote two-year-old horses, especially during the first months of the year.
Baby Race
A race for two-year-olds.
To bet or wager.
Back at the Knee
A leg that looks like it has a backward arc with its center at the knee when viewed from the side.
Back Marker
In a standing start event, which is handicapped, the horse who is given the biggest handicap is known as the backmarker. For instance, in a race five horses may start off the front (who travel the nominated race distance), three off ten metres (who travel the race distance plus an extra ten metres), one off 20 metres and one off 30 metres. The horse starting from 30 metres is known as the back marker.
Back Straight
The straight length of the track or paceway farthest away from the spectators and the winning post.
Back Up
The action of a horse slowing down noticeably.
A 'backed' horse is one on which lots of bets have been placed.
A horse which is backed-in means that bettors have outlaid a lot of money on that horse, with the result being a decrease in the odds offered.
The stable and training area of a racetrack.
The straight part of the track on the far side opposite the grandstand side or homestretch.
Backstretch (Racing Surface Term)
This is the straight-away section on the far side of the track.
Backstretch (Stable Area)
At many of the track sites the stable area is found adjacent to the back side of the track. Due to this proximity the stable name is sometimes referred to as the backstretch.
A horse that is either too young or not fully fit.
Bad Actor
Fractious horse.
Bad Actor (Fractious Horse)
A horse that acts up from time to time when it leaves the receiving barn for the race. Some signs are kicking, resisting being saddled, fighting it's handler or even attempt to savage it's handler. Sometimes this activity will exhaust the horse before it has a chance to run.
Bad Doer
A horse with a poor appetite, a condition that may be due to nervousness or other causes.
Bad Knees
Natural infirmity or due to injury.
Badge Horse
Single horse in stable entitling owner to admission badge.
Bald (Head Marking)
A White face which includes the eyes, nostrils and upper lip.
Bald (Or Bald Face)
White face of horse, including eyes, nostrils or part of the latter.
Medicine administered to a horse orally; commonly a physic.
Bandages used on horse's legs are three to six inches wide and are made of a variety of materials. In a race, they are used for support or protection against injury. "Rundown bandages" are used during a race and usually have a pad under the fetlock to avoid injury due to abrasion when the fetlocks sink toward the ground during weight-bearing. A horse may also wear "standing bandages," thick cotton wraps used during shipping and while in the stall to prevent swelling and/or injury.
Soft wraps used around a horse's legs for therapeutic purposes or to prevent a horse from hurting its heels on the racing surface.
(Also, Key) Highly expected to win. The strongest in a multiple selection in a parlay or accumulator. In permutation bets the banker is a selection that must win to guarantee any returns.
Bar Plates
Horseshoes with bars across the rear of the plate.
Bar Price
Refers to the odds of those runners in a race not quoted with a price during early betting shows. The bar price is the minimum odds for any of those selections not quoted.
Bar Shoe
A horse shoe with a rear bar to protect an injured foot; bar shoes may be worn with aluminum pads to protect a bruised frog, or my be worn alone.
Used to describe a filly or mare that was bred and did not conceive during the last breeding season.
A starting device used in steeplechasing consisting of an elastic band stretched across the racetrack which springs back when released. Also known as a "tape."
Barrier Draw
The process which is performed to determine the starting position or barrier for each horse in a race. Generally, the barrier draw is conducted by a computer, however, for special races like the Miracle Mile, the barrier draw may be conducted manually in front of patrons at a paceway.
Basilar (Fracture)
See sesamoids.
(Also, Stick) A jockey's whip.
A term for an illegal electrical device used by a jockey to stimulate a horse during a race. Also known as a "machine" or "joint."
Color of horse varying from yellowish tan (light bay) to brown or dark, rich shade of mahogany (sometimes listed as dark bay or brown) with black points- black mane, tail and shadings of black low on the legs.
Bear in
The action of a horse running towards the rail rather than straight.
Bear Out
The action of a horse running towards the outside of the track, rather than straight.
Beard (Us)
A friend or acquaintance or other contact who is used to placing bets so that the bookmakers will not know the identity of the actual bettor. Many top handicappers and persons occupying sensitive positions use this method of wagering.
Bearing in (Or Out)
Deviating from a straight course. May be due to weariness, infirmity, inexperience or the rider overusing the whip or reins to make a horse alter its course.
Bearing in (Out)
Failing to maintain a straight course, veering to the left or right. Can be caused by injury, fatigue, outside distraction, or poor riding.
UK slang term for betting tax. Also known as 'Bees' or 'Ajax'.
A horse which is termed a good beginner is either a pacer which shows a lot of speed at the start of a mobile event, or a trotter or pacer which steps away cleanly from a standing start. Similarly, a poor beginner is a pacer which doesn't have a lot of early speed or a trotter or pacer which doesn't settle into its gait straight away.
A bell that is rung in the home straight to warn drivers they are about to commence the final lap of the race.
Bell Lap
In harness racing, the last lap of a race, signified by the ringing of the bell.
Bertillon Card
A greyhound's identification card that lists physical identifying marks for every racing greyhound. The greyhound's Bertillon number is tattooed in its ear.
A transaction in which monies are deposited or guaranteed.
Betting Board
A board used by the bookmaker to display the odds of the horses engaged in a race.
Betting Interests
This is a concept that is as easy to understand as it is important to understand. To clarify, let's assume there is a race with eight horses listed as runners, but two of the horses are coupled for betting (example: 1 and 1A). This combination of horses would be seen as one betting interest. In other words a bet on one of them is a bet on both. In summary, in this case there are a total of seven betting interests in this race.
Betting Number
This is the saddle cloth number. This is NOT the post position number.
Betting Ring
An allocated area at the paceway where bookmakers work. Punters go to the betting ring in order to check out the odds of horses in a race and place bets.
Betting Tax
Tax on a Bookmaker's turnover. In the UK this is a 'Duty' levied on every Pound wagered. Common methods of recouping this by the punter are to deduct tax from returns (winnings) or to pay tax with the stake/wager. In the latter case, no tax is deducted from the punter's winnings.
Bettor (Us)
Someone who places or has a bet. A 'Punter' in the UK.
Beyer Number
A handicapping tool, popularized by author Andrew Beyer, assigning a numerical value (speed figure) to each race run by a horse based on final time and track condition. This enables different horses running at different racetracks to be objectively compared.
Big Red
Refers to Phar Lap!
Bill Daly (On the)
Taking a horse to the front at the start and remaining there to the finish. Term stems from "Father Bill" Daly, famous old-time horseman who developed many great jockeys.
Bird Cage
The enclosure or place on a paceway where horses are marshalled and paraded for events. The identity brand of each horse is checked during the marshalling period. Also known as the enclosure.
A favourite which the bookmakers do not expect to win.
A stainless steel, rubber or aluminum bar, attached to the bridle, which fits in the horse's mouth and is one of the means by which a jockey exerts guidance and control. The most common racing bit is the D-bit, named because the rings extending from the bar are shaped like the letter "D." Most racing bits are "snaffled," (snaffle bit) which means the metal bar is made up of two pieces, connected in the middle, which leaves it free to swivel. Other bits may be used to correct specific problems, such as bearing in or out.
A horse color which is black, including the muzzle, flanks, mane, tail and legs unless white markings are present.
Black Type
Boldface type, used in sales catalogues, to distinguish horses that have won or placed in a stakes race. Many sales catalogues have eliminated the use of black type for stakes below a certain monetary level-$15,000 in 1985, $20,000 from 1986-1989 and $25,000 beginning in 1990. If a horse's name appears in boldface type in a catalogue and in all capital letters, it has won at least one black-type event. If it appears in boldface type and capital and lower case letters, it was second or third in at least one black-type event. Black type was awarded to fourth-place finishers in races before Jan. 1, 1990.
A farrier or a horseshoer.
Bold-face type used in sales catalogs to distinguish horses who have won or placed in a stake race.
The official numbered cloth worn by the greyhound to represent its post position.
Blanket Finish
When the horses finish so close to the winning line you could theoretically put a single blanket across them.
A generic term describing a large, white vertical marking on a horse's face. The Jockey Club doesn't use blaze, preferring more descriptive words. See snip; star; stripe.
A horse that bleeds from the lungs when small capillaries that surround the lungs' air sacs (alveoli) rupture. The medical term is "exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage" (EIPH). Blood may be seen coming out of the horse's nostrils, known as "epistaxis," although it is typically discovered by a fiber optic endoscopic examination after exercise. Hot, humid weather and cold are known to exacerbate the problem. The most common preventative treatment currently available is the use of the diuretic furosemide (Lasix). Less than one bleeder in 20 shows signs of epistaxis. See "Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage" subsection of "Respiratory System" in veterinary supplement for a more detailed explanation.
Short-hand term for a medical condition called exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH). In a horse that suffers from bleeding, the small capillaries that surround the lungs' air sacs (alveoli) rupture. Blood may sometimes be seen coming from the horse's nostrils, but more often is seen through an endoscopic examination after exercise.
Blind Bet
A bet made by a racetrack bookmaker on another horse to divert other bookmakers' attention away from his sizeable betting on his/her main horse thus to avoid a shortening of the odds on the main horse.
Blind Switch
A situation in a race where a horse is pocketed behind horses and the jockey must decide whether to hope for an opening or take back and go around.
A cup-shaped device applied over the sides of the horse's head near his eyes to limit his vision. This helps to prevent him from swerving away from distracting objects or other horses on either side of him. Blinker cups come in a variety of sizes and shapes to allow as little or as much vision as the trainer feels is appropriate.
A blister is a chemical ointment or liquid which when applied to a limb causes an acute inflammation to develop. It is used to hasten repair of some chronic pathology such as an osselet, ring bone, bowed tendon, etc.
Block Heel
Horseshoe with a raised heel, to prevent running down.
Blood Worms
Blood worms are recognized to be the most dangerous of all internal parasites that are found in a horse. The adults live in the large intestine and the larvae migrate in the arteries causing a thickening of the blood vessels and sometimes a local stoppage of blood flow.
A way to verify a horse's parentage. Blood-typing is usually completed within the first year of a horse's life and is necessary before registration papers will be issued by The Jockey Club.
A thoroughbred.
Pedigree; family lineage.
Bloodstock Agent
A person who advises and/or represents a buyer or seller of Thoroughbreds at a public auction or a private sale. A bloodstock agent usually works on commission, often five percent of the purchase price, and can also prepare a horse for sale.
Blow Out
Short exercise to limber a horse before a race.
A short, timed workout, usually a day or two before a race, designed to sharpen a horse's speed. Usually three-eighths or one-half of a mile in distance.
Blowing Up
A horse which has had a very hard run, is not at its peak fitness, or does not handle the rigours of a race very well, may be referred to as ‘blowing up' after the run. This means the horse is breathing vigorously and excessively.
A very short, timed workout, usually a day or two before a race, designed to sharpen a horse's speed.
Short for 'Tote Board' on which odds, betting pools and other race information are displayed.
A bad step away from the starting gate, usually caused by the track surface breaking away from under a horse's hooves, causing it to duck its head or nearly go to his knees.
Bog Spavin
A bog spavin is a distended joint capsule of the hock - the swelling being found on the front-inside of the hock. It usually doesn't cause lameness but it is an eyesore. It appears spontaneously and it may disappear the same way.
Bold Eye
A horse with a prominent eye, a sign of aggressiveness.
When a horse swerves sharply from its lane or the regular course; when a greyhound leaves the course during a race.
A winning horse sent off at very high odds.
Bone Graft
Utilizing bone taken from one part of the body to promote formation of bone in another region.
Bone Spavin
Arthritis of the hock joint. A bone spavin that has progressed to the point that the arthritis can be seen externally is called a "Jack spavin."
1) The group of mares being bred to a stallion in a given year. If a stallion attracts the maximum number of mares allowed by the farm manager, he has a full book. 2) A term used to describe a jockey's riding commitments with his agent: An agent handles a jockey's book.
(U.K.) Short for bookmaker. The person or shop who accepts bets.
Person who is licensed to accept bets on the result of an event based on their provision of odds to the customer. (Sportsbook US).
Bookmaker (Bookie)
A person registered and licensed to bet with the public.
Bots (stomach worms) are internal parasites that live in their larva form in the stomach of the horse causing interference with digestion. The eggs are small and yellow and are laid on the legs and face of the horse during the fall of the year. The adults look like bees and are seen during the fall darting at the horse and laying their eggs.
UK slang, odds of 2 to 1.
1) Stamina in a horse. 2) Subsurface of a racing strip.
Bottom Line
A Thoroughbred's breeding on the female side. The lower half of an extended pedigree diagram.
A poor race run directly following a career-best or near-best performance.
Bounce Factor
A factor used in handicapping, there are tried theories that say that a horses racing career is made up of cycles, comprised of wins and losses. When a horse has reached a point in the cycle where he is about to go from the win cycle to the lose cycle, or vice versa, it is known as the bounce factor.
Bowed Tendon
A type of tendinitis. The most common injury to the tendon is a strain or "bowed" tendon, so named because of the appearance of a bow shape due to swelling. The most common site of injury is in the superficial flexor tendon between the knee and the ankle. Despite aggressive treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy and rest, horses commonly reinjure the tendon when they go back into competition. Two surgeries are felt to aid horses to come back to racing: tendon splitting at the lesion site to release accumulated fluid and blood, and superior check ligament desmotomy. The latter surgery is designed to reduce forces on the tendon when the horse returns to training and racing.
Bowed Tendon (A Bow)
A rupture of the sheath enclosing the tendon from the knee to the fetlock joint on a horse.
Used in exotic wagering, a style of betting wherein all combinations of a set of numbers are played. In an exacta, if you request the mutuel clerk to give you a "$2 box on the 1 and the 2", your ticket with a cost of $4 will reflect a $2 bet on the exacta 1 and 2 and a $2 bet on the 2 and 1. In a trifecta, if you request the mutuel clerk to give you a "$2 box on the 1-3-5", your ticket with a cost of $12 will reflect a $2 bet on the trifecta 1-3-5, a $2 bet on the trifecta 1-5-3, a $2 bet on the trifecta 3-1-5, a $2 bet on the trifecta 3-5-1, a $2 bet on the trifecta 5-1-3, and a $2 bet on the trifecta 5-3-1.
Box Trifecta
Usually four or five horses are "boxed" in a trifecta. If three of the horses selected all finish in the first three placings, the punter collects for a winning trifecta.
Boxed (In)
To be trapped between, behind or inside of other horses.
Boxed in
A horse that is racing on the rails (or fence) and is surrounded by other horses in front, outside and behind it. A horse that is boxed in is held up and unable to gain a clear passage.
Brace (Or Bracer)
A rubdown liniment used on a horse after a race or a workout.
To start galloping and lose natural trotting or pacing rhythm. This situation tends to occur more with trotters than pacers.
Break (A Horse)
1) To train a young horse to wear a bridle and saddle, carry a rider and respond to a rider's commands. Almost always done when the horse is a yearling. 2) To leave from the starting gate.
Break a Horse
To accustom a young horse to racing equipment and methods and to carry a rider.
Break Down
Become unable to race because of lameness or injury.
Break Maiden
Horse or rider winning the first race of its career. Also known as "earning a diploma."
Break Ones Maiden
Phrase given to a horse or rider when a first win of a career is achieved.
All mutuel payoffs are rounded down to the nearest dime. As an example: If 12 people shared in a pool of $146.00 the amount to be divided would be roughly $12.17. The official mutuel payoff would be $12.10 and the remaining money, called breakage, would be applied to whatever the state statute called for. In some cases the money goes to the track or the state,
When a horse suffers a potentially career-ending injury, usually to the leg: The horse suffered a breakdown. The horse broke down.
A strip of leather passed across the chest of a horse and fastened to each side of the saddle, to keep the saddle in place. Used on thin horses.
Restraining or easing off on a horse for a short distance in a race to permit him to conserve or renew his strength.
1) A horse is considered to have been bred in the state or country of its birth.
To mate horses. This term is also used to denote a type of horse. As an example, there are different breeds of horses: thoroughbred, standardbred, quarter horse, appaloosa, etc.
Breed Line
Pedigree; male side of the pedigree as contrasted with family, or female side. This is also used as a slang term for the odds on a horse.
Owner of the dam at time of foaling unless the dam was under a lease or foal-sharing arrangement at the time of foaling. In that case, the person(s) specified by the terms of the agreement is (are) the breeder(s) of the foal.
Breeders Awards
Money set aside from purses paid winning horses and paid to the original breeder of the winning horse.
Breeders' Cup
Thoroughbred racing's year-end championship. Known as Breeders' Cup Day, it consists of eight races conducted on one day at a different racetrack each year with purses and awards totalling $13 million. First run in 1984.
Breeding Fund
A fund set up by many states to provide bonus prizes for state- breds.
Working a horse at a moderate speed, with less effort than "handily".
Breeze (Breezing)
Working a horse at a moderate speed, less effort than handily.
Bridge Jumper
A person who wagers large amounts of money, usually on short-priced horses to show, hoping to realize a small, but certain profit. The term comes from the structure these bettors may seek if they lose.
Someone who makes large show bets on short-priced favorites.
Bridge-Jumper (Us)
Bettor who specializes in large show bets on odd-on favourites.
A piece of equipment, usually made of leather or nylon, which fits on a horse's head and is where other equipment, such as a bit and the reins, are attached.
Brittle Feet
This term describes feet that have lost too much moisture and have become dried out and contracted. Certain horses have a predisposition to this condition while other horses acquire it as a result of dry weather and poor grooming. Dry feet are prone to quarter cracks, bruises and the like.
Broken Down
A horse which suffers an injury, or develops a condition that makes it unable to race, is referred to as having broken down.
Broken Wind
This is an all-inclusive term used to describe any abnormality heard in the breathing apparatus of a horse. It is usually used to describe a whistler or a roarer.
A female greyhound used for breeding.
A female horse, generally retired from racing, used for breeding purposes.
Sometimes difficult to separate from black or dark bay. This color can usually be distinguished by noting finer tan or brown hairs on the muzzles or flanks.
1) During a race, two horses who slightly touch each other. 2) Injury that occurs when one hoof strikes the inside of the opposite limb.
Buck (Us)
A bet of US$ 100 (also known as a 'dollar bet').
Bucked Shins
Inflammation of the covering of the bone (periosteum) of the front surface of the cannon bone to which young horses are particularly susceptible. This is primarily a condition of the front legs.
Name denoting the reduced weight allowance permitted an apprentice jockey (bug boy). The denotation of a bug in the official program is an asterisk "*" which looks like a bug.
Bug Boy
An apprentice jockey.
Bug Boy (Apprentice Rider)
A student jockey. The term "bug" comes from the weight concession symbol found in the program (an asterisk "*") which looks like a bug.
Bug Weight (Apprentice Weight)
An apprentice rider is allowed to carry less weight due to his/her inexperience. When this weight concession is allowed the program denotes the weight in the program with an asterisk "*".
Bulbs (Of the Heel)
The two areas on either side of the back of the foot, similar to the heel of the hand.
Bull Ring
The term given to a small track, because of the sharp turns.
Bullet (Work)
The best workout time for a particular distance on a given day at a track. From the printer's "bullet" that precedes the time of the workout in listings. Also known as a "black-letter" work in some parts of the country.
Bullet Work
The best workout time for the distance on a given day at a track.
A small racetrack, usually less than one mile.
Burkington Bertie
See run down. Commonly used in the term: burned heels.
A sac containing synovial fluid (a natural lubricant). The purpose is to pad or cushion and thus facilitate motion between soft tissue and bone. Most commonly occurring where tendons pass over bones.
Inflammation in a bursa that results in swelling due to accumulation of synovial fluid. Capped elbow is inflammation of the bursa over the point of elbow (olecranon process of the ulna). "Capped hock" is inflammation of the bursa over the point of the hock (tuber calcis).
Short-hand for phenylbutazone, a commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication for horses, trade names Butazolidin and Butazone. Bute is legal medication in many racing jurisdictions, including Texas.
Bute (Or Butazolidin)
Trade name for phenylbutazone, a commonly used analgesic for horses.
Buy Price
In Spread or Index betting, the higher figure quoted by an Index bookmaker.
Buy the Rack (Us)
Purchase every possible daily-double or other combination ticket.
A horse put through a public auction that did not reach a minimum (reserve) price set by the consignor and so was retained. The consignor must pay a fee to the auction company based on a percentage of the reserve, to cover the auction company's marketing, advertising and other costs (also called passsing in the horse).
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