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A mutuel clerk who computes pari-mutuel odds.
A conformation fault of the forelegs where the knee is seen to bend backwards when viewed from the side.
A projection on the heels of a horseshoe, similar to a cleat, on the rear shoes of a horse to prevent slipping, especially on a wet track. Also known as a "sticker." Sometimes incorrectly spelled "caulk."
Small cleats inserted on the back end of a horse's shoe or racing plate that allows the horse a better grip of the surface. Sometimes called "mud calks."
To announce progress of race for purposes of official result charts (chart-caller); to describe race to audience; stage of race at which running positions are record, like "half-mile call".
Call (The)
Running position of horses in a race at various points.
Call to the Post
A special call played on a bugle used to signal the horses to the starting gate.
One who calls the running positions of horses in a race.
Also known as a Super Yankee. A Canadian is a combination bet consisting of 26 bets with 5 selections in different events. The combination bet is made up of 10 doubles, 10 trebles, five 4-folds and one 5-fold.
Softening of the horn of the foot, generally starting in the frog.
On the foreleg this is the bone structure between the knee and the ankle. On the rear leg it is located between the hock and the ankle.
Cannon Bone
The third metacarpal (front leg) or metatarsal (rear leg), also referred to as the shin bone. The largest bone between the knee and ankle joints.
A slow gallop or a lope.
Capillary Refill Time
The amount of time it takes for blood to return to capillaries after it has been forced out, normally two seconds; usually assessed pressing the thumb against the horse's gums. When the pressure is removed the gum looks white, but the normal pink color returns as blood flows into the capillaries.
Capped Elbow
Inflammation of the bursa over the point of the elbow. Also known as a "shoe boil." See bursitis.
Capped Hock
A swelling that is found at the point of the hock and is caused by a bruise. It usually comes from kicking in horse vans or in stalls.
Another term for fixture or race meeting. For example, a person may refer to there being eight races on the card, which simple means eight races will be staged at that particular meeting.
UK slang for Odds of 3 to 1 (also known as 'Tres' or 'Gimmel').
A joint in the horse's front leg, more commonly referred to as the knee.
A betting term referring to a type of exotic wager, wherein there is no payoff on today's offering and the pool is carried to a future race day for additional wagering. This will go on until someone wins by betting on the correct combination.
The motor that runs around the racetrack with the lure at a greyhound racetrack. Also called lure motor.
A horse is a cast when he lies down in the stall in such a way that he is too close to the wall, and there is a danger that he may not be able to get up by himself without injury.
Toward the tail.
Projection on the bottom of a shoe to give the horse better traction, especially on a wet track.
Center of Distribution
A formula derived from the Dosage profile and a similar attempt to quantify speed and stamina.
GBP£ 100 (also known as a 'Ton').
Wagering favorite in a race. Dates from the days when on-track bookmakers would write current odds on a chalkboard.
Chalk Player
Bettor who wagers on favorites.
See Eclipse Award.
A statistical "picture" of a race (from which past performances are compiled), that shows the position and margin of each horse at designated points of call (depending on the distance of the race), as well as the horses' age, weight carried, owner, trainer, jockey, and the race's purse, conditions, payoff prices, odds, time and other data.
Chart Caller
The person who charts all the horse races for a day and sends the information to the past performance program company or the American Quarter Horse Association.
A person who compiles records of each greyhound race and writes comments describing each greyhound's performance during a race.
See 'Steeplechase'.
To suffer interference during a race, causing a horse to alter its speed and/or path in a race. A severe check can ruin a horse's chance in a race.
When a jockey slows a horse due to other horses impeding its progress.
In horse racing, pulling a horse back or sudden slowing due to traffic problems during the race; in greyhound racing, a greyhound suddenly slowing.
Designation for superior sires, which fall into five categories–Brilliant, Intermediate, Classic, Stout, Professional–according to the speed and stamina they impart to their offspring.
1) A horse color which may vary from a red-yellow to golden-yellow. The mane, tail and legs are usually variations of coat color, except where white markings are present. 2) Horny, irregular growths found on the inside of the legs. On the forelegs, they are just above the knees. On the hind legs, they are just below the hocks. No two horses have been found to have the same chestnuts and so they may be used for identification. Also called "night eyes."
The use of bone alignment to treat specific or general health problems.
Choked Down
When a driver tries to get a horse to run at a slowed rate, he or she will sometimes pull its head back, unintentionally cutting off its breathing. This can cause the horse to lose consciousness and collapse on to the track.
Choking Down
See dorsal displacment of the soft palate.
Of stride, shortness, often reveals soreness.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Commonly known as "COPD," a hyperallergenic response of the respiratory system that involves damage to the lung tissue, similar in many ways to human asthma. Affected horses may cough, develop a nasal discharge and have a reduced exercise tolerance. Respiratory rate is increased and lung elasticity is diminished.
Chronic Osselet
Permanent build-up of synovial fluid in a joint, characterized by inflammation and thickening of the joint capsule over the damaged area. Usually attended by changes in the bone and cartilage. See arthritis.
Extension of backstretch or homestretch to permit a straight running start in a race as opposed to starting on or near a turn.
A term used to describe several racetracks with complementing racing dates, which form a circuit within a certain geographic area. In Texas, live race dates are awarded on a circuit theory to ensure to the extent practical continuous racing in the state for each breed of horse.
A process by which a person may purchase a horse entered in a designated race for a predetermined purchase price. This process also equalizes the competitive level of horses in a single race.
Claim Box
Where claims are deposited before the race.
Process by which a licensed person may purchase a horse entered in a designated race for a predetermined price. When a horse has been claimed, its new owner assumes title after the starting gate opens although the former owner is entitled to all purse money earned in that race.
Claiming Box
Box in which claims are deposited before the race.
Claiming Price
The purchase price for which a horse is running in a claiming race.
Claiming Race
A licensed owner or trainer can purchase a horse entered in a CLAIMING RACE for the price stated in the conditions, provided at least one start during the current meeting. When horse is "claimed" it is transferred to its new owner(s) immediately after the start of the race, win, lose, regardless of physical condition. In some states, if the horse runs within 30 days of being claimed, it must run for a claiming price that is 25 percent greater than its purchase price, or compete in a non-claiming race.
Claiming Races
Also known as claimers. These races are made up of runners which can be purchased or ‘claimed' by members of the public at a designated price.
The level of competition at which a horse competes.
1) A race of traditional importance. 2) Used to describe a distance A race at the American classic distance, which is currently 1quarter miles. The European classic distance is 1half miles.
Classic Race
A race restricted to horses of the one age in which all competitors start off the same mark.
Clerk of Scales
In horse racing, a racing official responsible for sequestering all jockeys each racing day, weighing all riders out and in from races, checking their assigned riding weights versus their actual weights, and reporting all changes. In greyhound racing, a racing official responsible for weighing the greyhounds in and out before the race, checking their established weights versus their actual weights, and reporting all changes.
Client (Us)
Purchaser of betting information from horseman or other tipster.
To run with unusually high motion of forelegs, usually when flustered or tired.
When a horse lifts its front legs abnormally high as it gallops, causing it to run inefficiently.
The person responsible for accurately timing the workouts of a horse.
Close (Us)
Final odds on a horse (e.g. 'closed at 5 to 1'). Confusingly equates to 'Starting Price' in the UK.
Closed Knees
A condition when the cartilaginous growth plate above the knee (distal radial physis) has turned to bone. Indicates completion of long bone growth and is one sign of maturity.
A horse that runs best in the latter part of the race (closing race), coming from off the pace.
Clubhouse Turn
Generally, the turn on a racing oval that is closest to the clubhouse facility; usually the first turn after the finish line.
Where three or more competitors share the status as favorite.
A horse which is going easily or travelling without pressure in a race, usually in front.
Coffin Bone
The third phalanx (P3). The major bone that is within the confines of the hoof. Also called the "pedal [PEE-dal] bone."
This is the term used to describe pain in the abdomen. Flatulence colic is caused by an excessive amount of gas in the digestive tract. Impaction colic is caused by an accumulation of large amounts of dry feed in the stomach or intestine. Torsion colic is caused by a segment of the intestine twisting in such a way that little or no food can pass through the area.
Color (Horses)
The color of a horses coat can be either Bay (B.), Dark Bay or Brown (Dk. B/Br.), Black (Bl.), Chesthut (Ch.), Gray (Gr.), White (Wh.) or Roan (Ro.).
Racing silks, the jacket and cap worn by jockeys. Silks can be generic and provided by the track or specific to one owner.
Colors (Colours)
Racing silks, the jacket and cap worn by jockeys. Silks can be generic and provided by the track or specific to one owner.
Colors (Horse)
Colors accepted by The Jockey Club are bay, black, chestnut, dark bay or brown, gray, roan and white. See individual entries for definitions.
Colors (Owner)
Color combinations of shirts and caps worn by the jockey in thoroughbred races. These colors represent a particular owner for all horses running in his name and are registered with the Jockey Club.
The special colourful jacket worn by drivers when in a race. A horse may only compete in the registered colours of either its owner or trainer. Trainers and owners can choose their own set of colour combinations but must apply to the Harness Racing Authority to have them approved.
An unaltered male thoroughbred age two through four is called a colt.
Across-the-board bet for which a single mutuel ticket is issued.
Combination Bet
Selecting any number of teams/horses to finish first and second in either order.
Combining mutuel pools from off-track sites with the host track.
Comminuted (Fracture)
A fracture with more than two fragments.
Money deducted from pari-mutuel pools to pay expenses and revenue necessary to conduct a race meeting.
Class of horses in a race He last ran in stakes company.
Comparable Index (Ci)
Indicates the average earnings of progeny produced from mares bred to one sire when these same mares are bred to other sires. A CI of 1.00 is considered average, 2.00 is twice the average, 0.50 half the average, etc.
Compound (Fracture)
A fracture where the damaged bone breaks through the skin. Also known as an "open" fracture.
Equine form or fitness; to train a horse; the terms of a race, such as purse size, eligibility qualifications, and weight concessions.
Condition Book
A booklet written by the racing secretary and published for the horsemen which lists all races, conditions and other information pertinent to the race meet. Trainers use the condition book as a guide for placing their horses in specific races at specific racetracks.
Condition Book(s)
A series of booklets issued by a racing secretary which set forth conditions of races to be run at a particular racetrack.
Condition Race
An event with conditions limiting it to a certain class of horse. Such as: Fillies, 3-year-olds, non-winners of two races other than maiden or claiming, etc.
Conditional Jockey
Same as 'Apprentice' but also allowed to jump.
Conditioned Race
Eligibility to enter is determined by a set of conditions such as age, sex, races won, etc.
1) A trainer. 2) A workout or race to enable a horse to attain fitness.
The requirements of a particular race. This may include age, sex, money or races won, weight carried and the distance of the race.
Condylar (Fracture)
A fracture in the lower knobby end (condyle) of the lower (distal) end of a long bone such as the cannon bone or humerus (upper front limb).
The physical makeup of and bodily proportions of a horse how it is put together.
Present at birth.
Persons identified with a horse, such as owner, trainer, rider and stable employees.
Consolation Double
A payoff to holders of daily double tickets combining the winning horse in the first race of the double with a scratched horse in the second.
Consolation Payoff
Using a daily double as an example, when a horse is scratched from the second race after daily double betting begins, money is set aside to pay those who have bought tickets pairing horses with the winner of the first race.
Contract Rider
Jockey on whose services to an owner or trainer, by contract, has first call.
Cooling Out
Restoring a horse to normal temperature, usually by walking, after it has become overheated during exercise. All horses that are exercised are cooled out.
A corn is a bruise under the sole of the hoof. It usually comes from stepping on a stone or some other hard object.
Last part of the turn into the homestretch.
Coronary Band
Where the hair meets the hoof. Also called the "coronet."
The area just above the hoof or the "crown of the hoof".
Correct Weight
Horses are allocated a weight to carry that is checked before and, for at least the placegetters, after a race. Correct weight must be signaled before bets can be paid out.
Hormones that are either naturally produced by the adrenal gland or man-made. They function as anti-inflammatory hormones or hormones that regulate the chemical stability (homeostasis) of the body. One common misconception is that a horse which has received corticosteroids experiences an increase in its natural abilities and therefore has an unfair advantage. At the present time, there is no scientific evidence to support such a perception. See AAEP position on anabolic and corticosteroids in veterinary supplement.
To expel air from the lungs in a spasmodic manner. Can be a result of inflammation or irritation to the upper airways (pharynx, larynx or trachea) or may involve the lower airways of the lungs (deep cough).
Counter-irritants are the same as blisters.
Country (Breeding)
When a horse was breed in a country other than the U.S., this country's abbreviation is carried in the official program next to the horse's name.
Two or more horses running as an entry in a single betting unit.
Coupled (Entry)
Two or more horses running as an entry in a single betting unit.
Coupled Entry
Two or more horses owned and/or trained by the same person, entered in the same race and coupled for betting. This combination of horses would be seen as one betting interest.
A single breeding of a stallion to a mare He covered 70 mares.
Cow Hocks
This is a conformation fault where the hocks are very close to each other while the rest of the rear legs are widely separated and toed-out.
Top-notch horse.
Cracked Heels (Grease Heels-Scratches)
This is a weeping moist dermatitis found on the back of the pasterns just above the quarters.
Cracked Hoof
A vertical split of the hoof wall. Cracks may extend upwards from the bearing surface of the wall or downwards from the coronary band, as the result of a defect in the band. Varying in degrees of severity, cracks can result from injuries or concussion. Hooves that are dry and/or thin (shelly) or improperly shod are susceptible to cracking upon concussion. Corrective trimming and shoeing may remedy mild cracks but in severe cases, when the crack extends inward to the sensitive laminae, more extensive treatment is required, such as using screws and wires to stabilize the sides of the crack.
Cracking Pace
When the leader/s of a race run at a very quick speed, often in the early stages of a race.
Toward the head.
Creep Feeder
A feed device designed to allow a foal to eat but keep its dam out. Otherwise, the mare will eat the foal's food.
A horse who constantly chews wood. It is usually caused by boredom and can often be stopped by painting the sills, doors and fences with creosote or red pepper paste.
Cribber (A Wind Sucker)
A horse who clings to objects with his teeth and sucks air into his stomach.
1) The number of foals by a sire in a given year. 2) A group of horses born in the same year An average crop of three-year-olds. 3) A jockey's whip.
When a horse or rider falls. Usually applied to steeplechase races.
Cross Fire
When a horse's hind foot strikes the opposite front foot or leg.
A horse which begins from one of the positions out wider on the track, which moves down to the inside fence, is referred to as crossing to the fence. Likewise, if such a horse has the speed to beat all other horses to the leading position of a race, this is known as crossing to the lead.
Crow's Nest
The area at the top of the grandstand where the announcer, stewards, judges, and others watch the races from a high vantage point.
To race too close to another horse, forcing its rider to take up or change course.
A "unilateral cryptorchid" is a male horse of any age that has one testicle undescended. A "bilateral cryptorchid" is a male horse of any age that has both testicles undescended. The Jockey Club defines "cryptorchid" as a male horse of any age that has both testicles undescended.
1) Refers to the irregular occlusal surface of the tooth (the surfaces that meet when a horse closes its mouth) and is used as a visual method of determining age in a horse. 2) Trophy awarded to winning horse owners, usually in a stakes race.
Cup Horse
One qualified to engage in distance races.
A track surface that breaks away under a horse's hoof, due to soft pockets.
Cuppy (Track)
A dry and loose racing surface that breaks away under a horse's hooves.
A curb is a strained, thickened ligament found at the rear of the hock about three inches below the point of the hock.
The loose, top surface of the racing surface.
Cut Down
Horse suffering from injuries from being struck by the shoes of another horse. Or, due to a faulty stride, a horse may cut itself down.
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