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A Thoroughbred racing saddle is the lightest saddle used, weighing less than two pounds.
Saddle Cloth
A cotton cloth which goes under the saddle to absorb sweat. It usually has the horse's program number and sometimes, in major races, its name.
Saddle Cloth (Towel)
A cloth under the saddle on which program numbers are displayed.
Saddle Pad
A piece of felt, sheepskin, or more usually, foam rubber, used as a base for the saddle.
The device which displays the horse's barrier position within a race, and in some cases, the colour of the saddlecloth refers to the race number.
Saliva Test
Laboratory test to determine if a horse has been drugged or overdosed with permitted medication.
Sand Crack
Sand Cracks
These are cracks in the toe of a dry and brittle hoof. They may run in the direction of the coronet an inch or two.
Saucer (Fracture)
Stress fracture of the front of the cannon bone that can be straight or curved.
When a horse bites another horse or a person.
Save Ground
To cover the shortest possible distance in a race.
Scale of Weights
A schedule of set weights that must be carried by horses according to age, sex, distance and time of year to equalize competition.
To train a race animal.
Process of familiarizing a horse with the starting gate and teaching it racing practices. A horse may also be schooled in the paddock. In steeplechasing, more particularly to teach a horse to jump.
Schooling List
List of horses required by the starter to school at the starting gate before being permitted to race.
Schooling Race
A practice race held using actual racing conditions, but in which no wagering is allowed.
A technique where radio-labeled technetium is injected intravenously into a horse. A gamma camera is used to record uptake of the nucleotide in the tissues. It is particularly useful diagnostically to localize an area of inflammation in the musculoskeletal system. The most common radioisotope used to image bones is technetium-99m.
The movement behind the mobile barrier before a start is initiated. All horses should be in their respective positions when the mobile gate begins to move. The mobile vehicle gradually increases its acceleration throughout the score-up until it reaches the starting point when the field is released.
To be taken out of a race before it starts. Trainers usually scratch horses due to adverse track conditions or a horse's adverse health. A veterinarian can scratch a horse at any time.
Scratch Sheet
A daily publication that includes graded handicaps, tips, and scratches.
Scratch Time
The deadline established by the race office for horses to be scratched before printing the official program.
A horse that is withdrawn (or scratched) from a race before the start. Horses can be scratched because of illness or injury.
Screw Fixation
A procedure in which steel-alloy screws are surgically inserted to hold together a fractured bone.
Second Call
A secondary mount of a jockey in a race in the event the jockey's primary mount does not draw into the race.
Second Dam
Grandmother of a horse. Also known as a "granddam."
Second Sire
Horse's paternal grandfather.
Sectional Time
There are four sectional times in every race, which are the four quarters of the last mile (1609m). An acceptable set of sectionals or quarters would read 30.5 seconds, 31.0, 29.5, 29.5, to equal the last mile in 2:00.5 (two minutes and five seconds).
A track employee who sells pari-mutuel tickets.
Selling Race
See claiming race.
Sensitive Laminae
The area of the hoof that contains nerves and vessels.
Sesamoid bones are located at the back of the fetlock, the joint formed by the pastern bone and the cannon bone.
Sesamoid (Fracture)
Fracture of the sesamoid bone. Fractures can be small chips or involve the entire bone. Surgical repair is often done by arthroscopy.
Sesamoid Bones
Two small bones (medial and lateral sesamoids) located above and at the back of the fetlock joint. Four common fractures of the sesamoids are apical (along the top of the bone), abaxial (the side of the sesamoid away from the ankle joint), mid-body (sesamoid broken in half) and basilar (through the bottom) fractures. See "Fractures" subsection of "Musculoskeletal System" in veterinary supplement for a more detailed explanation.
The sesamoids are two pyramidal shaped bones found at the rear of the fetlock joint. The act as a pulley for the flexor tendons. When they become arthritic and become coated with mineral deposits, the condition is know as sesamoiditis.
A group of horses being exercised together.
Set Down
1) A suspension The jockey was set down five days for careless riding. 2) When a jockey assumes a lower crouch in the saddle while urging the horse to pick up speed The horse was set down for the drive to the wire.
Seven Furlongs
Seven-eighths of a mile; 1,540 yards; 4,620 feet.
Sex Allowance
Female horses (fillies and mares), according to their age and the time of year, are allowed to carry three to five pounds less when meeting males.
Shadow Roll
If a horse has been shying away from sudden changes in light that naturally occurs on the racetrack, it may be equipped with a shadow roll. This is a large Sheepskin band that is fitted over a horse's nose to keep its eyes focused forward and away from distractions underfoot.
Rope or strap attached to a halter or bridle by which a horse is led.
Shed Row
The stable area with barns and walk-ways under a roof.
Stable area. A row of barns.
A handicapping tool assigning a numerical value to each race run by a horse to enable different horses running at different racetracks to be objectively compared.
Shift Out
To veer out wide on the track while racing. A horse may shift out when racing under pressure, and may sometimes cross into the path of other runners.
Horses that have to travel to be able to race.
Shoe Boil
See capped elbow.
A horse in need of more work or racing to reach winning form.
Short Field
A race with seven or fewer race animals.
The implements used to shorten the length of a horse's hopples. Sometimes horses need a smaller stride during the beginning of a race, in order to ensure they maintain their gait and don't race too fiercely. In this case, a trainer would use hopple shorteners, which are pulled out at a later stage during the race to enable the horse to increase its stride and therefore speed.
Third position at the finish.
Show Bet
Wager on a horse to finish in the money; third or better.
Shut Off
Unable to improve position due to being surrounded by other horses.
Side Bone
This is an ossification of the lateral cartilages that are located just above the quarters of the hoof. It is seldom seen in thoroughbreds and is generally considered a disease of old horses.
Jacket and cap worn by riders to designate owner of the horse, or at some smaller tracks, to designate post positions (e.g., yellow for post position one, blue for two, etc.).
Silks (Also Called Colors)
A jockey's racing shirt and cap displaying the owner's or post position colors.
Simple (Fracture)
A fracture along a single line which does not penetrate the skin.
A simultaneous live television transmission of a race to other tracks, off-track betting offices or other outlets for the purpose of wagering.
This is an infection of one or more sinuses in the head causing a foul smelling nasal discharge to appear.
The male parent, or father, of a horse.
Sires' Stakes
Most Australian states have a Sires' Stakes programme. A horse is eligible for a Sires' Stakes series or race if his or her sire was at stud in that particular State where the horse was conceived. Therefore, horses whose sire stood in NSW are eligible for NSW Sires' Stakes races, which are programmed for two, three and four-year-olds.
To race in a trailing position, see trail.
Six Furlongs
Three-quarter of a mile; 1,320 yards, 3,960 feet.
One-sixteenth of a mile; 110 yards, 330 feet.
Skinned Track
Dirt racing strip as opposed to a turf or grass course.
Slab (Fracture)
A fracture in a bone in a joint that extends from one articular surface to another. Most often seen in the third carpal bone of the knee.
An underrated race animal.
A breeding term meaning spontaneous abortion.
A racing surface on which the cushion is saturated, but the base is still firm. Footing is splashy but even, and the running time remains fast.
Sloppy (Track)
A racing strip that is saturated with water; with standing water visible.
Sloppy Track
A condition of a racetrack which reflects standing water.
A track with some moisture in it that is not fast, between good and heavy.
Slow (Track)
A racing strip that is wet on both the surface and base.
Slow Track
A racing surface wetter than good, but not as thick as muddy. Footing is still wet, between heavy and good.
Smart Money
Insider's bets.
Snaffle Bit
See bit.
A small patch of white hairs on the nose or lips of a horse.
Snip (Head Marking)
A separate white or flesh colored marking found between the nostrils or on the lips.
Mild restraining hold by rider.
Solid white markings on a horse extending from the top of the hoof to the ankles.
Soft (Track)
Condition of a turf course with a large amount of moisture. Horses sink very deeply into it.
Soft Run
An easy run. A horse which is not put under pressure in the running of the race, by receiving a favourable position throughout. For instance, a horse which travels in the one-one for most of the race, or travels in the lead without being taken on, may be referred to as having had a soft run.
Solid Horse
A three-year-old horse.
Three-year-old horses. Called sophomores because age three is the second year of racing eligibility.
See bog, bone and knee spavin.
Speed Figure
A handicapping tool used to assign a numerical value to a horse's performance. See Beyer number.
Speed Index (Si)
A comparison of a horse's time in a race versus other times at the same track at the same distance.
Speedy Cut
The front foot hits the inside of the hock or the rear foot hits the outside of the front cannon bone. It is caused by poor conformation and/or poor shoeing.
The resting period between preparations or racing. Horses cannot remain in peak form and hard training all year round. Sooner or later they become stale and require a spell so that their system may regenerate.
Spelling Paddock
The resting place for a horse having a spell from racing. Sometimes it is used instead of the word spell - meaning, a horse has been sent to the spelling paddock, instead of a horse has been sent for a spell.
Spiral (Fracture)
Fracture that spirals around bone.
Spit Box
A generic term describing a barn where horses are brought for post-race testing. Tests may include saliva, urine and/or blood.
Spit the Bit
A term referring to a tired horse that begins to run less aggressively, backing off on the "pull" a rider normally feels on the reins from an eager horse. Also used as a generic term for an exhausted horse.
1) Either of the two small bones that lie along the sides of the cannon bone. 2) The condition where calcification occurs on the splint bone causing a bump. This can result from response to a fracture or other irritation to the splint bone. A common injury is a "popped splint," see periostitis.
A gap between two horses, usually towards the finish of a race, through which a fast finishing runner may race for the winning post.
Spring Halt
Involuntary elevation of the hind legs.
A horse race around one turn less than 1 mile long; a greyhound race of 5/16 mile.
Sprint Race
A race run at less than a mile, generally with only one turn.
A race animal that shows a preference for short distances.
Square Gaiting
Another term describing the gait of a trotter. When trotting or square gaiting, a horse stretches its left front and right rear legs forward almost simultaneously and then follows suit with its right front and left rear legs.
Stable Entry
Two or more horses in same race whose owners share financial interests.
Areas, enclosures or places on a Paceway used for the accommodation of horses competing at a meeting. Stables may also refer to the areas on a trainer's property or other property where their horses are accommodated.
Stacked Up
The opposite to strung out. In a field which is stacked up, the distances between the leader, rear horse and all other runners will be quite small.
A race (usually a feature race) for which owner must pay up a fee to run a horse. The fees can be for nominating, maintaining eligibility, entering and starting, to which the track adds more money to make up the total purse. Some stakes races ar e by invitation and require no payment or fee.
Stake Race
A race for which owners nominate race animals and pay fees to be added to the purse.
A race for which the owner usually must pay a fee to run a horse. The fees can be for nominating, maintaining eligibility, entering and starting, to which the track adds more money to make up the total purse. Some stakes races are by invitation and require no payment or fee.
Stakes Horse
A horse whose level of competition includes mostly stakes races.
Stakes Producer
A mare that has produced at least one foal that finished first in a stakes race.
Finishing first, second or third in a stakes race.
Stall Walker
Horse that moves about its stall constantly and frets rather than rests.
A male horse, generally retired from racing, that stands at stud and is used for breeding purposes.
Stallion Season
The right to breed one mare to a particular stallion during one breeding season.
Stallion Share
A lifetime breeding right to a stallion; one mare per season per share.
Most harness racehorses in Britain, North America and Australasia are 'Standardbreds', so called because the American harness studbook, begun last century, used the ability to cover a mile in a 'standard' time (initially 2 min 30 secs) as the criteria for entry. In Europe the French Trotter, the Sandinavian 'cold-blood' and the Russian Orlov are also used in harness racing, though Standardbreds and Standardbred crosses predominate everywhere except in France.
Standing Bandages
See bandage.
Standing Starts
A race start in which the horses are stationary at the time of release. A tape is drawn across in front of the runners and then released when the starter begins the event. Sometimes horses can be slow to get into a pace or trotting gait, and will often gallop way, ruining their chances in the race.
1) Any of a number of white markings on the forehead. (The forehead is defined as being above an imaginary line connecting the tops of the eyes.) 2) A type of credit a horse receives from the racing secretary if it is excluded from an over-filled race, giving it priority in entering future races.
The person responsible for starting a harness race, whether it be a mobile or standing start event. In a mobile event, the starter controls the start of the race from the back of the mobile vehicle, while in a standing start event, the starter controls the start from the track sidelines. The starter also decides when and if a false start should be declared.
Starter Allowance
An allowance or handicap race restricted to horses that have started for a specific claiming price or less.
Starter Race
An allowance or handicap race restricted to horses that have started for a specific claiming price or less.
Starter's List
List of horses ruled out of action by the official starter because of chronic misbehavior at gate.
Starters Allowance
An allowance or handicap race restricted to horses which have started for a specific claiming race.
Starting Box
An electro-mechanical device from which the greyhounds begin a race.
Starting Gate
An electro-mechanical structure in which the horses are loaded. All stall doors open simultaneously when the starter dispatches the field, ensuring a fair start.
State Bred
A race animal bred and/or foaled/whelped in a particular state in a manner that meets all the criteria established by the state law and commission rules, and thus is eligible to compete in special races or purse supplements.
State Veterinarian
The commission veterinarian is usually appointed by the state racing commission. This person serves as professional adviser and consultant to the state racing commission on veterinary matters including all regulatory aspects of the application and practice of veterinary medicine at the track.
A horse bred in a particular state and thus eligible to compete in special races restricted to state-breds.
A horse which has the endurance to race well over long distances. Sometimes a person will comment that a horse can 'stay all day'. This means the horse in question is a good stayer and will continue to race at a said pace for however long is asked of them.
A horse being taken in hand by his rider, usually because of being in close quarters.
A race in which horses are required to jump over a series of obstacles on the course. Also known as a "chase."
Step Up
A horse moving up in class to meet better competition.
Stepped Away Cleanly
In a standing start event, a pacer or trotter which begins well (goes straight into their gait) when the start is affected, is referred to as having stepped away cleanly.
Steps Up
A horse moving up in class to meet better runners.
A horse racing official who presides over a race meeting, has jurisdiction over all racing officials, rules on protests and claims of foul, and imposes fines and suspensions. In Texas, all three stewards presiding at a race meeting are Commission employees.
The persons appointed by the Harness Racing Authority to assist in the control of racing and other matters related to the sport. They ensure all rules relating to racing and betting are observed and enforced. Stewards are required to regulate, control and inquire into and adjudicate on the conduct of officials, owners, trainers, drivers, persons attending to horses, bookmakers and clerks - at any event where licensed persons are involved.
A jockey's whip, also called a bat.
See calk.
Calks on shoes which give a horse better traction in mud or on soft tracks.
The large joint above the hock which is made up by the femur, the patella and the tibia.
Another term for the Stewards. The correct term is stipendiary stewards, hence the shortened nick-name of stipes.
Metal "D"-shaped rings into which a jockey places his/her feet. They can be raised or lowered depending on the jockey's preference. Also known as "irons."
Solid white markings or a horse extending from the top of the hoof to the knee or hock.
Betting on a horse to win a race.
Straight as a String
Descriptive of a horse running at top speed.
Straight Bet
A straight bet means to wager a particular animal will either win, place, or show.
Straight Six
You have to correctly select the winner of six consecutive nominated races. There are some huge collects available if you can!
Straight part of a race course.
A groom, the person who assists the trainer, cares for the horse or helps to put on its equipment. Also known as an attendant.
Stress (Fracture)
A fracture produced by the stress created by a repetitive loading cycle on the bone, commonly found in athletic training. Usually seen in the front of the cannon bone as a severe form of bucked shins. Also seen in the tibia and causes a hard-to-diagnose hind limb lameness.
The final straightaway portion of the racetrack to the finish line.
Stretch Call
The position of the race animals at designated pole markers, dependent upon the length of the race.
Stretch Runner
Horse that runs its fastest nearing the finish of a race.
Stretch Turn
Bend of track into the final straightaway.
Of a horse, its way of running or the ground it covers after each foot been in contact with the track once.
Markings of a horse. White hairs running part-way down the face.
A white marking running down a horse's face, starting under an imaginary line connecting the tops of the eyes.
Strung Out
A field of horses in a race in which the distances between the leader, the rear horse and the other runners is quite great. Such a field would be referred to as being well strung out.
A farm or stable or place where registered stallions and/or mares are located for breeding purposes.
Stud Book
Registry and genealogical record of Thoroughbreds, maintained by the Jockey Club of the country in question. Use lower case when describing a generic stud book, all words, including "The," are capitalized when describing "The American Stud Book."
Fee paid by owner to nominate a horse for a stakes race or to maintain eligibility for a stakes race.
Substitute Race
An alternate race used to replace a regularly scheduled race that does not fill or is canceled.
A foal in its first year of life, while it is still nursing.
When a horse refuses to extend himself.
Also known as the cart or gig, the sulky is the contraption attached to the harness which carries the driver and which the horse pulls. A modern sulky has two bicycle tyres and weighs around 25kg.
Superficial Flexor Tendon
Present in all four legs, but injuries most commonly affect the front legs. Located on the back (posterior) of the front leg between the knee and the foot and between the hock and the foot on the rear leg. The function is to flex the digit (pastern) and knee (carpus) and to extend the elbow on the front leg and extend the hock on the rear leg. Functions in tandem with the deep flexor tendon.
Superior Check Ligament
Fibrous band of tissue that originates above the knee and attaches to the superficial flexor tendon. Primary function is support of this tendon. Accessory ligament of the superficial flexor tendon.
Suspend (Or Suspension)
Punishment for infraction of rules. Offender denied privileges of racetrack for specified period of time. If permanently suspended: Ruled Off.
A driver or trainer who is deemed, by the stewards, to have broken one or more of the rules of harness racing, may receive a suspension as punishment. A suspension means a driver cannot participate in any race and a trainer may not train for a set period of time. The length of time a trainer or driver is suspended is decided by the Stewards in relation to the severity of their offence. For instance, a driver with a previously unblemished record would receive a lighter penalty than another who had previously offended. A horse can also be placed under suspension, in which case it would be debarred from racing.
Suspensory Ligament
Originates at the back of the knee (front leg) and the back of the top part of the cannon bone (hind leg), attaching to the sesamoid bones. The lower portion of the ligament attaches the lower part of the sesamoid bones to the pastern bones. Its function is to support the fetlock. The lower ligaments that attaches the sesamoid bone to the pastern bones are the distal sesamoidean ligaments.
Suspensory Ligament Strain
The suspensory ligament is a broad ligament that lies behind the cannon bone and splits into two branches a few inches above the fetlock joint, attaches to the outside of the sesamoids and ends in front of the pastern as part of the extensor tendon. It supports the fetlock joint. When it is injured, it becomes thickened and inflamed and loses its shape. Often a fractured splint bone will be found to be the cause of the injury.
The taking of blood and/or urine samples from a horse for analysis by a testing laboratory. The stewards may direct any horse to be swabbed before or after it has raced, irrespective of where it finishes in the race. The samples are tested by the laboratory for any irregularities or prohibited substances or drugs. A positive swab is one which has been found to contain a prohibited substance.
Horse with a prominent concave shape of the backbone, usually just behind the withers (saddle area). Scoliosis.
Sweating Up
A horse which is sweating up has a lather of frothy looking sweat all over its body. This sweat may develop on a nervous, fractious or fired-up horse before it races, or on a horse that has experienced a hard run during a race, or one that is just plain hot.
Those horses which were racing at the rear of the field but are moved out to race wide on the track by their drivers in order to get a clear run down the home straight towards the finish line.
Stake races.
A groom.
Synchronous Diaphragmatic Flutter
A contraction of the diaphragm in synchrony with the heart beat after strenuous exercise. Affected horses have a noticeable twitch or spasm in the flank area which may cause an audible sound, hence the term "thumps." Most commonly seen in electrolyte-depleted/exhausted horses. The condition resolves spontaneously with rest.
Synovial Fluid
Lubricating fluid contained within a joint, tendon sheath or bursa.
Synovial Joint
A movable joint that consists of articulating bone ends covered by articular cartilage held together with a joint capsule and ligaments and containing synovial fluid in the joint cavity.
Synovial Sheath
The inner lining of a tendon sheath that produces synovial fluid. Allows ease of motion for the tendons as they cross joints.
Inflammation of a synovial structure, typically a synovial sheath.
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